This paper reflects the various processes, tools and techniques in analyzing, evaluating and processing an industrial report at the end of the visit by Industrial Visit Procedure Model (I-V-P-M). The set of procedures to be followed and the factors with associated industries have been reflected in this Model.
Students can take the help of different questions and processes from this model in order to make their industrial visits successful with learned outcome.
The Industrial Visit Procedure Model (IVPM) shows a particular model to be followed for an industrial tour in advance. Before going for any industrial visit, there are certain guidelines on part of both industry to be visited and students/college going for such visit. It is necessary to be proactive in order to have a successful visit to avoid the failure. The Industrial Visit Procedure Model (IVPM) briefly describes these guidelines mostly followed by all types of industries at present.
Communication is the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. In an industrial visit, it is necessary on part of both parties- industry and institution to get approval of common issue.
The institutions after having finalized their initial semesters are required to arrange an industrial visit for the practical experience of work to the students. In this purpose, an invitation is sent to corporates for industrial visit by different mediums of communication. Institutions normally have a ready format to ease the operation of sending an invitation. The invitation is made after consideration of various aspects like:
- Duration of Visit/Tour
- Venue of Visit/Tour
- Time availability
- Cost consideration
- Nature of course
Communication flows by two types as per arrangement of industrial visit is concerned:
Interorganisational communication takes place in between the visiting and host parties. In it both, institution and industry are involving to each other by following various means of communication after taking into consideration of above mentioned aspects. Interorganisational communication takes place between the industry HR manager or Placement Head and the allocated person of an institute. It happens till the final approval of the visit is scheduled by the industry.
After getting the final approval, the institution and organisation goes for intra-organisational communication in order to inform about the purpose and schedule of visit. Generally corporates are aware about the schedule, venue and purpose of industrial Visit by the concerned institute in advance through their planning process. They have in advance set their terms and conditions to the institute for the purpose of visit. Institution later disseminates the information about confirmed date of visit and asks for student registration, if necessary.
Industry and the institution are now ready to have their common issue to be finalized. Before that both the parties are preparing themselves for a successful visit.
After confirmation of visit is finalised by the industry, it needs some preparation in order make the visit successful. Certain steps are to be taken for preparation by both the industry and institute in particular. Certain functional goals are set by the corporates and institutions to make themselves prepare for a particular industrial visit. Depending upon the type of visit by any particular college/institute, the below highlighted needed areas are to be checked in advance:
a) By Industry:
- Assigning a specialised employee for the team well versed with all operations of industry.
- Provision for availability of Head or Senior Official of industry for interaction.
- Arrangement of interactive session and venue to be made in advance.
- Preparing a corporate presentation for students covering major policies, operations and background of industry.
- Taking necessary steps to ensure safety during the visit.
- Arranging post visit refreshment for visitors and some recreational facilities like Role Play, Special event game, etc depending upon the batch and course study.
b) By Institution:
- Provision for separate Program Officer/ Corporate Relation Officer/Placement Officer for industrial visits.
- Assigning faculty member(s) to associate the visit.
- Disseminating the confirmed visit information by Program Officer to the concerned Head of academic department.
- Provision for Boarding and Lodging facilities for visiting semester during travel and stay taking into consideration the duration of visit.
- Inviting registration of students from batch in advance and confirming such on the notice board.
- Compiling a final list of students going for industrial tour.
- Counseling and preparing the final batch for visit by discussing with the objective of the visit.
- Preparing students by developing their interpersonal and communication skills for an interactive session.
- Arrangement of transport with the Administration office to be ready at least two days before the scheduled date of visit.
- Insurance cover for students
- Taking notice in advance to make sure that students must be in formals (preferably given by campus or Western formals), carry their campus ID-Card or specific card for visit arranged by the institution. The students must carry notebook/Notepad/diary with pen/pencil.
- Taking provision that the visit must be ready and all the registered students must reach campus one hour before the given time on the date of visit.
Orientation or Induction is the welcoming process to generate a feeling of belongingness to the organisation. Induction is the beginning of fusion process between the practical and theory of the subject. Induction in industrial visit is mainly concerned with following headings:
In Industrial visits, generally it is concerned to eliminate the problem of getting confused with whom to meet first. The Program Officer or in his absence the Faculty member gives the momento about the purpose of visit to the corporate personnel of the company. After that all legal or important formalities arebeing filled by the Program Officer, if necessary.
The Corporate Personnel after receiving momento takes the batch and introduces with the Incharge Personnel of Academic Visits. The Incharge Personnel later takes them for an Interactive Session if arranged before the visit. Some corporates have Interaction cum Refreshment session after the end of visit to address the students with their feedback and questions or queries. Depending upon the process followed by the company, the batch is being introduced to the higher or senior official accordingly. Feedback forms are being given to the Program Officer by the company to be distributed at the end of visit to the students. These forms are later filled by the students and handed over to company for feedback purpose.
b) Interactive Session:
An interactive session is being set by the company to address the students about the background of industry. In it the students are addressed by some senior official of the company. The assigned corporate personnel generally presents a PowerPoint presentation about the nature, existence, policies and operations of business run by that industry. Some companies are providing a short duration film as part of visit for recreation cum awareness session.
Interactive session is mainly concerned about the information to be extracted by the students through questions and answers. Depending upon the type of course and objective of visit, students can accordingly put some questions to their knowledge bank. It is better to make a questionnaire in advance in order to cover most of the information.
Here are some of the questions related to different departments to be asked in an industrial visit:
- I. Overview:
- What are/is the objectives or vision of the industry?
- When was the factory/establishment/business started?
- Is the organisation internationally certified?
- What is the market share of the establishment in the industry?
- What are the strengths/economies of the industry?
- What are the weaknesses/ diseconomies?
- How many employees are employed?
- II. Functional Hierarchy
- Names of Director(s)/ BODs/Chairman.
- Name of General Manager
- Names of different Departmental Heads
- Functioning of Various departments
- Roles and responsibilities of GM in the overall management of the establishment
- III. Production Department
- Who heads the department?
- What are the different designations as per hierarchy of persons engaged?
- What all measures are taken to ensure safety of workers?
- Is entry to production area restricted?
- What all records are maintained?
- How frequently the working area is cleaned?
- What about coordination with other departments?
- What are the different processes in making a product?
- How many employees are there?
- What is the routine of work in the department?
- What IT package are being used by the department and why?
- How delivery of the product is done to the immediate department?
- Which technique is employed in designing a particular product/service?
- What are the instruments used in manufacturing a product?
- What is the role of information technology in the process of a product?
- Are process flow diagrams available?
- What are the different profiles in production department?
- IV. Purchase and Store department
- Who heads the department?
- How purchasing and warehousing is done?
- What are the norms followed in purchasing and storing the materials?
- What are registers maintained?
- Which purchasing or storing package is installed in the system?
- How is inventories managed?
- What is the process flow of stores?
- How is issue to production department regulated?
- Is entry to store restricted?
- V. Finance and Accounts department
- Who heads the department?
- What are the statutory records maintained?
- What is the system of accounting practiced?
- What all registrations are taken to run the establishment?
- How is items billed?
- Which form part of the major revenue- (if there are different items produced)?
- What are the Excise registers?
- What is the Accounting Package installed?
- How is a sale to employees accounted?
- How costing in different departments is followed?
Mansoor Ahmad Dar
M.Phil, MBA, BA Economics
Asst. Professor Marketing & Economics
- VI. Human Resource Department
- Who heads the department
- What are the general functions of the department?
- How is an employee recruited?
- What are the steps involved in his induction into a job?
- How many employees are there in the establishment?
- Which all registrations are available?
- What are the formalities for resignation and relieving?
- Whether all employees are covered by statutory coverage like ESI, EPF?
- What is the criterion for granting promotions?
- Do you transfer employees from this unit to other units of the same group of companies?
- What are the welfare schemes available for employees apart from the statutory social security schemes?
- Do you have a canteen?
- How is mess cost calculated and collected from employees?
- Have you given quarters to employees?
- Do you recover rent from employees?
- Do you have trade unions?
- How many workers/ trade union office bearers have been recognised as Protected Workmen?
- Have you entered into any Long Term Settlement?
- What is the system of performance appraisal?
- How is a disciplinary action taken against an employee?
- Do the Departmental Heads have the authority to initiate disciplinary action against their employees?
- Do you have Grievance Redressal?
- Do you have Policy against Sexual Harassment at Workplace? Do you have certified Standing Orders?
- In the absence of Standing Orders, how the relationship between employer and employee is regulated?
- What is the wage period?
- How is salary disbursed?
- What are the processes of sanctioning different kinds of leaves?
- What is the normal rate of Bonus being given to employees?
- What is the criterion for payment of bonus?
- Have you got any exemption from the operation of any social security schemes like ESI, EPF, pension Fund?
- Have you got any medical benefit cover to employees?
- Have you put the yearly gratuity liability in LIC’s Gratuity fund?
- What are the activities available to the employees to show case their extracurricular skills?
- Are employees eligible to buy products of the establishment free of cost or at a concessional rate?
- Is there any Canteen Committee? If so, how does it function?
- What are the measures taken by HR Department to make the employees aware of the ISO standards?
- Do you have regular training sessions for the employees?
- Is attrition rate under control? If not, what steps you can take to control labour turnover?
- Is there any dispute pending before Conciliation Officer, Labour Court or Tribunal?
- What is the vision of People Management Department?
- I. Security Department
- Who heads the department?
- What are the entry and exit regulations adopted?
- Whether visitors/ guests are also subjected to frisking?
- Do you have mock drills often?
- What are the registered maintained at the department?
- Are the security guards under the rolls of the establishment?
- What is the duty span of a security guard?
- What arrangements have been done in case any reliever is not reported?
- Who looks after the security of the establishment when the Chief Security Officer is off duty?
- II. Marketing Department
- Who heads the department?
- How market is analysed?
- How research is done?
- How is product or serviced launched?
- Who is the Brand Ambassador?
- What percent of turnover is spent on advertisements?
- How is advertising done?
- How is customer relationship management ensured?
- Which segment of market is targeted by the company?
- What is the marketing mix of company?
- Which channel of distribution/marketing is followed by the company?
- How pricing of the products is done by the industry?
- What is the target fixed?
- How packaging of the products is made?
- What are the ways followed by the industry to tackle the competition?
- Who are your main competitors?
- What is your position in the market?
- What about the marketing competence of the company?
- Are the Executives directly employed or engaged on contract on commission basis?
- How output is analyzed?
- What is the reporting system/ how a sales report is prepared?
- How incentives are calculated?
- If the sales brochure/ menu is being provided to customers?
- How is internal and external marketing environment maintained?
There are lots of questions to be asked depending upon the purpose of visit, type of course, type of industry, etc. For example students from hotel industry can ask for departments of Housekeeping, Service, Production and Front-Office. Similarly students from Management, Engineering, Medical, Computer, etc can have accordingly questions to be asked related to the type of industry to be visited.
Analysis means the process of observing and evaluating an experience to give it a proper meaning in order to end it with a definite and appropriate consensus. The students after interactive session are being divided into groups depending upon their strength and an expert of the company is assigned to every group in order to demonstrate the operations performed by the industry. Depending on the type of industry, students can analyse the practical environment inside the industry. Students from hotel management can visit all the four departments and can accordingly take experience of practical environment there. Similarly Engineering students can analyse the manufacturing department, Management students can cover the associated department(s), IT students can have analysis on a software firm, etc.
Industrial visit analysis can be made by two step process:
A student can personally observe all events and happenings during an industrial visit. Observation takes place when he watches with all senses the different operations and processes with a close watch. He has already studied all these in his studies and yet hadn’t realised it in the practical world. The transition from theory to practice has made him to observe the real practical part of his job. It stimulates the cognitive power of a student by screening the actual happenings at workplace. The different teams headed by different company experts are being introduced to various operations of internal working environment and are used to note down accordingly in order to make a project report later.
A pre-planned questionnaire can help a lot here in order to clear all doubts regarding your queries and ask to expert according to the department being observed. Compiling information from the experts about any event or process can add to the total knowledge of students.
After the students have gone through operations of particular or all departments had spent considerable time in the vicinity of an industry observing the internal working environment, they are now needed to evaluate and give a precise and accurate meaning to the objective of their industrial visit. The process involves drawing a final conclusion as written document by investigation. Students in particular have to examine the quality in drawing the final report and conclusion of all processes associated from the point of entering to final processes analysed and observed. Different variables must be explored out of the mind through creative learning in order to enhance the practical exposure by the students.
After observing and familiarizing with different aspects of working environment, students are being given a feedback form by the company to provide their valuable response in terms of conclusion, suggestions, experience, recommendations, etc to the company. The feedback provides valuable information about the necessary steps to be taken in future in order to have a smooth and successful informative and practical visit.
A report is a textual work of visit made with the specific intention of relaying information or recounting certain events in a widely presentable form. Reports are written to be read. An Industrial Visit report contains all the information in written form related to each and every process analysed and evaluated during the visit.
Industrial Visit report displays the result of visit in an appropriate stepwise form. The contents are written keeping in focus to relevance of objective of visit and analysed processed during that visit. An industrial visit report may vary from company to company, process to process, objective to objective and number of industries visited during a visit.
To make an effective format a student has to consider:
- font (type and size)
- line spacing
- the amount of white space around and within the text
- the fonts of headings and sub-headings
- Types of graphics.
The sequence in which the project report material should be arranged and bound should be as follows:
- Cover Page & Title Page
- Table of Contents
- List of Tables
- List of Figures
- List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Nomenclature
The table of contents should list all material following it as well as any material which precedes it. The Title Page and Bonafide Certificate will not find a place among the items listed in the Table of Contents .The table of contents covers areas as:
- Visit Objectives.
- Introduction of company.
- Key Features of the System, Processes, Experiences observed in the company.
- Critical analysis / findings/Recommendations/Conclusions and Lessons Learnt.